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U.S. Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration, Civil Nuclear Top Markets for U.S. Exports 2014-2015, December 2014, p. 23, export.gov/civilnuclear/eg_main_081332.asp. Exception for China: Representative Markey distinguished himself with the government on the question of whether China should be treated as a security exception, and stated that „we insisted that the United Kingdom, an armament state and our closest ally, accept security measures as part of our nuclear cooperation agreement. So why not the Chinese? He stated that „according to the provisions of the nuclear law, the People`s Republic, as a nuclear state, is exempt from the IAEA`s protection obligation. However, contrary to the erroneous consequences of the agreement, China is not entirely exempt from the protection requirements.¬†H.Res. 269. On September 20, 1985, MP Markey H.Res. 269 submitted to ask the President to re-introduce the proposed agreement, with the exception of sections 123a (1) and 123a (7) of the Atomic Energy Act.

The nuclear expansion program in the People`s Republic of China is the most aggressive in the world. Although 26 power plants operating in China currently account for less than 2% of the country`s electricity generation capacity, the Rpc has 23 additional reactors under construction and plans to build up to 100 additional reactors by 2030.14 By comparison, the United States has 99 power reactors as of June 2015. Nuclear cooperation must be balanced against risks and benefits. Risks include the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the modernization of technologies and knowledge, which could also have military uses. Benefits include extending the commitment, building confidence in building trust, and allowing U.S. companies to compete with potentially lucrative nuclear contracts. Increasing nuclear power in China could also help reduce its greenhouse gas emissions. The sale of four AP1000 reactors to China by Westinghouse in 2007 was announced for $8 billion. As part of an engineering and procurement agreement and a separate technology licensing agreement, „Westinghouse will provide nuclear fuel and essential safety components, as well as information on the design, operation and maintenance of the facilities,“ said the law firm Baker Donelson, which represents the nuclear industry.

Some of the main provisions of the agreement have been the subject of lengthy and difficult negotiations. We discussed at length what it means in practice not to help other countries acquire nuclear explosives…. We understand that China`s policy is implemented in a manner consistent with basic non-proliferation practices that are common to the United States and other major suppliers…. The United States requested that China accept the IAEA guarantees for U.S. deliveries under the agreement, but stubbornly refused to accept this condition.

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